The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted in 1992 with the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. It has been the main avenue for action and cooperation to address climate change since then.
The Kyoto Protocol, which sets out internationally binding emission reduction commitments for industrialized countries, was adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. In 2012, the Doha Amendment was adopted, which sets out new commitments for a second commitment period to 2020.
With the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015, governments worldwide agreed to limit global warming to well below 2 °C and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C; to increase adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change and build climate resilience; and to foster and make climate finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low-emission and climate-resilient development. Global GHG emissions must peak and be subsequently reduced by the middle of this century in order to deliver on those goals.
The adoption of the Convention and its instruments has not only triggered an unprecedented response in terms of policies, projects and programmes, but also helped to raise awareness of the importance of addressing climate change and to elevate consideration of climate action to the highest political level.
This report, prepared by the secretariat as input to the United Nations 2019 Climate Action Summit, provides an overview of the action taken by governments to address climate change in response to UNFCCC mandates and presents the status of climate action and relevant support provided and received.